ESA

# 91390 Thermochemical principles, properties of particles and substances

NZNZRegular price \$14.95

This course covers the things you'll need to know and be able to do for achievement standard 91390.

In it you'll find answers to questions like:

• What is the electron configuration of atoms and ions of the first 36 elements using s, p, d notation?
• What are periodic trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy and electronegativity?
• What is the difference between atomic and ionic radii?
• How do you draw Lewis structures and shapes?
• What are the shapes of molecules and ions?
• What does polarity of molecules mean?
• What are the attractive forces between atoms and ions (covalent bonds and ionic bonds)?
• What is intermolecular attraction due to temporary and permanent dipoles, including
• hydrogen bonding?
• What are the factors affecting the relative strengths of intermolecular forces?
• What is the evidence for differences in the relative strengths of intermolecular forces
• What is meant by $$\Delta_{sub}H°$$, $$\Delta_{vap}H°$$ and $$\Delta_{fus}H°$$?
• How do you apply thermochemical principles to systems involving phase changes?
• What is meant by $$\Delta_{\text{c}}H°$$, $$\Delta_{\text{f}}H°$$ and $$\Delta_{\text{r}}H°$$
• What is meant by the transfer of heat between the system and surroundings, and use of specific heat capacity?
• What is Hess’s law?

### How you'll learn

People learn in different ways. Now we'll describe some of the ways you can learn and interact with the materials in this course.

Self-paced learning – the material is set up so you can learn at your own pace. So, although there are 'suggested' times for each page, they're just a guideline. Plan your learning to suit you.

Practice activities – throughout this course there are short activities. These activities are for you, not for someone to mark them. These activities give you a great chance to practice what you've learned and compare your answer to the model feedback. Look at the feedback carefully to see if you have missed out any aspects from your answer.

Submitting photos – sometimes people find it easier to scribble down a diagram or show their working with pen and paper. No problem! You can still store all your working and diagrams with the activity. That way you'll be able to refer back to your answers when you're revising. Simply take a photo of your work and upload it with the relevant activity.